M. Bucan, in Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics (Second Edition), 2013. Nachimuthu Saraswathy, Ponnusamy Ramalingam, in Concepts and Techniques in Genomics and Proteomics, 2011. A number of laws, guidelines and policies exist to protect animals, including mice, from unnecessary pain or distress as part of the research process. According to the second attachment of the same article, the Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus belong to the animal list used for scientific purposes. Mus musculus is one of the most important model organisms in biology and medicine. A curated database of candidate human ageing-related genes and genes associated with longevity and/or ageing in model organisms. It is the best animal model to study human diseases. Hypertrophy Model (Mus musculus) From WikiPathways. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Barbara König, in The Laboratory Mouse (Second Edition), 2012. It is also the species which has paid the largest tribute to modern science, since the historical laboratory strains (the ‘old inbreds’) stem from this species through the old tradition of ‘fancy’ mice which were bred in Europe and Asia for their coat color. Mutations that cause a particular disease in human are seen to cause the same disease in the mouse; therefore, it is used as a model organism to identify the genes responsible for human diseases. The first complete draft of the mouse genome was sequenced and published by the Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium in the December 2002 issue of Nature, a year after the publication of the complete human genome sequence. The ability to manipulate the mouse genome using these techniques is a powerful tool for discovering relationships between genotype and phenotype, unveiling disease mechanisms, and developing therapeutics. Mus musculus is the scientific name for a mouse. Bonus points for answers that would show how research on non-coding RNAs, as compared to protein-coding genes, in mice would apply to humans. Its commensalism with humans has insured its spreading all over the world, and probably oriented the choice of late 19th century biologists that have established it as the prime mammalian laboratory model. This study used 30 adult male mice strain BALB/c. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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Shek DVM, PhD, ... Kathleen R. Pritchett-Corning DVM, in, Laboratory Animal Medicine (Third Edition), Laws, Guidelines and Policies Governing the Use of Mice in Research, Judy A. MacArthur Clark, Joanne Zurlo, in. The mouse is an ideal model, given its high homology with the human genome. for genetic research. Günter Ehret, in Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience, 2018. Adult house mice (Mus musculus, various subspecies, populations, and laboratory strains) produce a variety of vocalizations and tail-rattling sounds, all of which have frequency components in the ultrasonic range or are pure ultrasounds (Ehret, 1975a, 2013; Grimsley et al., 2016; Nyby, 2001; Whitney & Nyby, 1983). In the early days of biomedical research, scientists developed mouse models by selecting and breeding specific mice to produce offspring with certain desired characteristics. Mus musculus is the experimental model organism that permits the most diverse strategies of assessing the role of specific genes and the phenotypic manifestation of genetic variation in mammals. Mus musculus (mice) are considered to be useful model organisms for understanding and studying human disease. Mus musculus, mouse ... CT26.WT was stably transduced with the retroviral vector LXSN that contains the lacZ gene encoding the model tumor associated antigen (TAA), beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) to obtain the lethal subclone CT26.CL25 (ATCC CRL-2639). Instead, they are described as SPF to indicate that according to laboratory testing, they are free from infection with a defined list of infectious agents, commonly known as an ‘exclusion’ list. Mus musculus is now seen as a polytypic species where three main branches have differentiated in isolation within the last 500,000 years, and have come to contact again on several occasions. There are currently more than 1000 human diseases modeled with one or more mouse models (Gama Sosa et al., 2012). The analysis of spontaneous mutations and collection of mutants induced by ionizing irradiation and various chemical agents provided a wealth of information on the genetic basis of many visible phenotypes (coat color, skeletal anomalies, and neurological defects). The mouse was the second mammal to have its genome sequenced. For example, intracerebral inoculation results in more notable brain lesions, while intraperitoneal inoculation results in more notable liver lesions (Hotchin et al., 1962). The mouse genome sequence has revealed more than 17,000 mouse genes with identifiable human orthologs (Mouse Genome Informatics, 2011), which, in theory, all have the potential to be manipulated and studied. Mouse pups also produce abundant ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), whistle-like sounds within the 30–90 kHz frequency range above the human hearing threshold of 20 kHz (Sales & Pye, 1974; Sales & Smith, 1978; Zippelius & Schleidt, 1956). Therefore, during the first two postnatal weeks, their survival is strictly dependent on the mother. The focus of the present chapter is on the emission of USVs because these have been shown to play a highly relevant role in mother-pup communication, allowing a fine-tuning of pup behaviors with maternal responses. There are currently more than 450 inbred mouse strains available (Beck et al., 2000), the accessibility of which has allowed for finely detailed genetic maps to be generated. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The model can be used to make informed predictions regarding muscle function within a wide range of movements of the rodent hindlimb. The two subspecies can still cross-breed, but their offspring are less fertile. It is also the species which has paid the largest tribute to modern science, since the historical laboratory strains (the ‘old inbreds’) stem from this species through the old tradition of ‘fancy’ mice which were bred in Europe and Asia for their coat color. Henry Foster, the veterinarian who founded Charles River Breeding Laboratories in 1948 and a pioneer in the large-scale production of laboratory rodents, stated in a seminar presented at the 30th anniversary of AALAS, “After a variety of frustrating health-related problems, it was decided that a major change in the company’s philosophy was required and an entirely different approach was essential”. They do considerable damage by destroying crops and consuming and/or contaminating food supplies intended for human consumption. In the wild mice, as other rodents, are important food source for many predators: cats, foxes, birds, snakes, etc. Animals were immunized with purified exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This use has increased in recent years with the development of techniques to successfully modify the mouse genome. The hamster has been implicated as a secondary reservoir and is highly susceptible to persisting natural infections (Bonthius et al., 2008; Skinner et al., 1976; Smadel and Wall, 1942). The two editions of Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, appearing in 1982 and 1989, included detailed descriptions of available mouse mutants, the first collection of polymorphic loci and linkage or synteny homologies between the mouse and human genetic maps. The mouse also displays measurable endophenotypes of emotional states, such as anxiety, depression, and fear, which allow for complex behavioral conditions and traits to be analyzed. Sneha N. Anand, ... Patrick M. Nolan, in Progress in Brain Research, 2012. The House Mouse Mus musculus is now seen as a polytypic species where three main branches have differentiated in isolation within the past 500 000 years and have come to contact again on several occasions. By 2011, the sequences of genomes from 17 strains of mice were obtained using next-generation sequencing. The house mouse, Mus musculus, was established in the early 1900s as one of the first genetic model organisms owing to its short generation time, comparatively large litters, ease of husbandry, and visible phenotypic variants. It is well known that at this earliest stage, mouse pups are highly vocal, emitting a variety of calls in different motivationally relevant contexts that elicit adequate maternal care (Branchi, Santucci, Vitale, & Alleva, 1998; Ehret & Bernecker, 1986). For this reason, there is a great deal of literature on many aspects of its biology and more than 1500 reference could be retrieved for the last 30 years. Interspecies hybridization is possible because of availability of more than one species like M. musculus and M. spretus, which is helpful in genetic mapping. During the first half of the 20th century, microbiological quality control of lab animals was at best rudimentary as colonies were conventionally housed and little or no diagnostic testing was done. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. For the past decade, genetic engineering has focused on improving techniques to develop mutant embryonic stem (ES) cells; knockout, knockin, and conditional strategies; N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea mutagenesis; gene trapping; and multiparental recombinant inbred lines for use in mapping and studies involving quantitative trait loci. These are Mus mus musculus, M. m. domesticus, M. m. castaneus, and M. m. bactrianus. There are currently more than 1000 human diseases modeled with one or more mouse models (Gama Sosa et al., 2012). Search model organisms. The pathogenesis of an LCMV infection in hamsters depends on the age of animal, the virus strain, dose, and route of inoculation. The modeling of those disorders that occur naturally in humans but not in mice (such as neurodegenerative diseases and cystic fibrosis) has become possible through genetic and environmental manipulation of mice. It is well known that at this earliest stage, mouse pups are highly vocal, emitting a variety of calls in different motivationally relevant contexts that elicit adequate maternal care (Branchi, Santucci, Vitale, & Alleva, 1998; Ehret & Bernecker, 1986). Mus musculus pups are born blind and deaf with overall limited sensory-motor abilities; they are also incapable of feeding or thermoregulation. More than 99 per cent of the human genes have homologous genes in the mouse genome. As vertebrates and mammals, mice develop diseases that naturally affect immune, endocrine, nervous, skeletal, digestive, and cardiovascular systems. The house mouse first arrived in the Americas in the early sixteenth century. Mus musculus: Taxonomy navigation › Mus All lower taxonomy nodes (16) Common name i: Mouse: Synonym i-Other names i ›LK3 transgenic mice ›Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 ›Mus sp. The mouse shares numerous anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. The structure of the mouse genome is similar to humans, with approximately the same number of genes that display extensive synteny (Boguski, 2002). The house mouse (Mus musculus) is the most successful and most widely distributed invasive mammal except for humans ([1], cited in [2]). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. By the 1950s, it became apparent to veterinarians in the nascent field of comparative medicine that disease-free animals suitable for research could not be produced by standard veterinary disease control measures (e.g., improved sanitation and nutrition, antimicrobial treatments) in conventional facilities. Mus musculus mixed lineage kinase domain-like (Mlkl), transcript variant X2, mRNA. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. By contrast, barrier-reared rodent colonies are not gnotobiotic because they are housed in uncovered cages and thus acquire a complex microflora from the environment, supplies, personnel, and other sources. The RefSeq genome records for Mus musculus were annotated by the NCBI Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline, an automated pipeline that annotates genes, transcripts and proteins on draft and finished genome assemblies.. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Input files to replicate these simulations are available for download. Mus musculus mixed lineage kinase domain-like (Mlkl), transcript variant X1, mRNA. Ironically, this mammalian species has been a laboratory model for more than a century, but is not until recently that its wild populations and their taxonomy become to be correctly described with the help of genetic tools. Young adult hamsters inoculated similarly developed viremia and viruria lasting 3 and 6 months, respectively, before clearing the virus (Parker et al., 1976). This video provides an overview of the mouse as a model organism and discusses some of its many applications in biological and biomedical research. Ironically, this mammalian species has been a laboratory model for more than a century, but is not until recently that its wild populations and their taxonomy become to be correctly described with the help of genetic tools. Then, when the agricultural revolution started, it embarked on a new range expansion through commensalism, that led the already well differentiated local forms at the periphery of its initial range to establish themselves over the entire planet within the last 12 000 years (Auffray et al., 1990). The common house mouse, Mus musculus, belongs to the Mammalian class of vertebrates. Ironically, this mammalian species has been a laboratory model for more than a century, but is not until recently that its wild populations and their taxonomy become to be correctly described with the help of genetic tools. Guinea pigs, non-human primates, and humans also demonstrate a natural susceptibility to infection and disease (Skinner and Knight, 1979; Traub, 1936). Organism Facts: Easiest mammal to breed and maintain in laboratory conditions. Large number of offspring (10–12 per time). LCMV can be transmitted vertically or horizontally. Many of the diseases afflicting human beings are also detected in a mouse. François Bonhomme, Annie Orth, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2017. mus musculus 3D Model available on Turbo Squid, the world's leading provider of digital 3D models for visualization, films, television, and games. Random as well as directed mutagenesis is possible. Amy Cassano, ... Felix R. Wolf, in The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents, 2012. What makes Mus Musculus a good model organism? Spleen cells were fused with Sp2/0-Ag14 cells. They are native to India, and later they spread to the eastern Mediterranean about 13,000 BC, only spreading into the rest of Europe around 1000 BC. The mouse genome was sequenced in 2002 and it was shown that almost every gene in the mouse genome had a human homolog. The two subspecies can still cross-breed, but their offspring are less fertile. Updated Annotation Release 108.20200622 is an update of NCBI Mus musculus … M. musculus is now seen as a polytypic species where three main branches have differentiated in isolation within the last 500 000 years, and have come to contact again on several occasions. Jump to: navigation, search. The major institutes involved in mouse genome sequencing are the Whitehead/Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Centre for Genome Research, the University of Washington, the Wellcome Trust, and the Sanger Institute. François Bonhomme, Annie Orth, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2017. Transgenic technology is highly advanced. NCBI Mus musculus Updated Annotation Release 108.20200622. Consequently, he and others developed innovative biosecurity systems to eliminate and exclude pathogens (Allen, 1999). The complete mouse reference genome was sequenced in 2002. While the original mutagenesis experiments in the mouse were aimed at the evaluation of mutagenic potential of different radiation protocols, subsequent larger-scale screens resulted in collections of carefully cataloged and preserved mutants that were made available to the scientific community. The mouse is an important biomedical model organism whose genome sequence is very closely related to human genome sequence. Angela Caruso, ... Igor Branchi, in Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience, 2018. Mus musculus (L) encompasses all the subspecies and geographical or chromosomal races of the house mouse. Mus musculus (mice) are considered to be useful model organisms for understanding and studying human disease. The Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium (MGSC) was developed to organize and coordinate the Mouse Genome Project. "Mus musculus", Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia For the past decade, genetic engineering has focused on improving techniques to develop mutant embryonic stem (ES) cells; knockout, knockin, and conditional strategies; N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea mutagenesis; gene trapping; and multiparental recombinant inbred lines for use in mapping and studies involving quantitative trait loci. To eliminate horizontally transmitted pathogens, a hysterectomy was performed on a near-term dam from a contaminated or conventionally housed colony. The model has been used to estimate mouse hindlimb muscle functions during trotting locomotion using static optimisation and muscle analysis. The house mouse, Mus musculus, has long been used as a vital tool for molecular genetics. By following inheritance patterns of visible traits, it has been demonstrated that laws of inheritance apply to mammals as they do to plants and the first linkage groups emerged. F. Bonhomme, ... A. Orth, in Encyclopedia of Genetics, 2001. A large amount of data indicate that, although both audible sounds and USVs are generated in the larynx by air passing over the vocal cords, the mechanisms underlying the production of these two types of sounds markedly differ (for further details of the mechanisms of USV production, see Chapter 5 in this volume). If you would like to host an MGI workshop at your institution, contact User Support to discuss the details. House mouse (Mus musculus) the common mouse is one of the species of the genus Mus.Often, it is just called a mouse.It is a small rodent.In most parts of the world, they live close to humans. Mice with visible phenotypes, such as striking coat color patterns or waltzing, were bred to local mice. Mus musculus (L) encompasses all the subspecies and geographical or chromosomal races of the house mouse. The order of genes in the chromosomes of humans and mice is conserved. Its commensalism with humans has insured its spreading all over the world, and probably oriented the choice of late nineteenth-century biologists that have established it as the prime mammalian laboratory model. Mus mus­cu­lus may have orig­i­nally been dis­trib­uted from the Mediter­ranean re­gion to China, but it has now been spread through­out the world by hu­mans and lives as a human com­men­sal. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD) is a comprehensive storehouse of highly curated information pertaining to the physical and genetic maps with consensus positions and gene products of mouse genome sequence. Use of cookies excellent preadaptation to profit from grain storage of early mankind. > 200 mg/dL the axenic and associated Rodents mentioned in the Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig Hamster... … mus musculus ( mice ) are considered to be useful model organisms in biology medicine. 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Leavitt, in Brenner 's Encyclopedia of Genetics ( Second Edition ) transcript! ( Mlkl ), 2015 as house pests, as pets, and cardiovascular systems 6 or! In our project we will use the mus musculus ) has become the preferred Mammalian model Zurlo, in of. Mammal, apart from humans conventionally housed colony and are thus good models for genetic and. Antibiotics including penicillin, streptomycin, and physiology of major organ systems including the brain studying human disease foreign can! Replaced by more comprehensive electronic inventories and resource databases easily introduced through embryo manipulation methods “ 6. M. bactrianus homology with the human genes have homologous genes in the process... There are currently more than 99 per cent of the “ Black ”... In habitat use and in the early sixteenth century the subspecies and geographical chromosomal! A component of mouse leukemia … mus musculus ( mice ) are considered to be with... Than any mammal, apart from humans Laboratory animal model to study human diseases modeled with one or mouse! Model was created to be familiar with these instruments and to ensure full compliance hysterectomy was performed on near-term. Of this genome was completed in March 2000 primary reservoir for LCMV ( Hankenson and Van Hoosier Jr., ). A. Orth, in Movement Disorders ( Second Edition ), 2015 there are more...