Using his invention, scientists were able to produce […] An illustration from Volta’s 1800 paper. Zijn vader, Filippo Volta, was elf jaar novice bij de jezuïeten geweest voordat hij de vrome freule, Maria Maddalena dei Conti Inzaghi, huwde. 1769 – Volta published a dissertation titled On the Attractive Force of the Electric Fire, and on the Phenomena Dependent On It, which he sent to Beccaria. His wealthy friend Giulio Cesare Gattoni had built a physics laboratory in his home. Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta is part of G.I. In recognition of Alessandro Volta’s contributions to science, the unit of electric potential is called the volt. Volta then studied at the Benzi Seminary until reaching eighteen years of age. 1794 – At the age of 50, Volta was awarded the Royal Society’s top prize – the Copley Medal – for his contributions to scientific understanding of electricity. Graaf Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (Como, 18 februari 1745 – Camnago, bij Como, 5 maart 1827) was een Italiaans natuurkundige die bekend is geworden door zijn ontdekking van de elektrische batterij ofwel de voltaïsche cel (Zuil van Volta). Volta trouwde in 1794 met Teresa Peregrini (1764-1841), de jongste dochter van graaf Ludovico Peregrini. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Alessandro was de telg uit een beroemde adellijke familie met uitstekende contacten in de kerkelijke en politieke wereld. Volta’s theoretical and experimental work in this area resulted in his construction of the first battery. Alessandro Volta. Van de Royal Society, waarvan hij sinds 1791 lid was, kreeg Volta in 1794 de Copley Medal. The young Alessandro was educated at home by his uncle until he was twelve years old. Volta found that by connecting up more and more pairs of metals connected with moist card, he could produce ever higher voltages, leading to significant electrical currents. The Jesuit school charged no fees, but pressurized him to become a priest. Volta found that it was the presence of two dissimilar metals, not the frog leg, that was critical. In 1881, scientists decided that the unit of electric potential would be called the volt to recognize Volta’s great contributions to electrical science. Alessandro Volta (formally Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta) was an Italian scientist best known for inventing the battery. Before he reached the age of 30, he became a physics professor in Como. Alessandro Volta Volta's early life. Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta or Alessandro Volta in short was born in February 18, 1745 in Coma, Lombardy, Italy. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Alessandro Volta was an Italian scientist whose skepticism of Luigi Galvani’s theory of animal electricity led him to propose that an electrical current is generated by contact between different metals. The electrical unit of a Volt was named for Alessandro Volta. Volta performed various experiments on frogs’ legs. • Wrote the first electromotive series. The initials "G.I." In zijn geboortestad ging Volta ook naar de middelbare school waar taal en literatuur centraal stonden. Volta shares this title with Luigi Galvani, who made important developments in animal electricity. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie. Although as a child he had been slow to speak Italian, Volta now seemed to have a special talent for languages. Alessandro Volta died in Italy in 1827. In 1774 he became professor of experimental physics at the University of Pavia, a chair he occupied for almost 25 years. This generation experienced much of their youth during the Great Depression and rapid technological innovation such as the radio and the telephone. There he was very interested in studying static electricity, building on the work of other scientists. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. The battery Volta invented gave chemists a very powerful new method to study substances. Just follow this Volta tour and get ready to learn something about his history and life! The beauty of his device was that almost anyone could make one – silver and copper coins were available to many people, as were other metals such as iron, tin and zinc. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18. helmikuuta 1745 Como – 5. maaliskuuta 1827 Como) oli italialainen fyysikko, joka kehitti teorian staattista sähköä varastoivasta laitteesta. He was born to a noble family in Como, Italy in February 1745. Italian physicist Alessandro Volta made a number of discoveries in the late 18th and early 19th century critical to the then all-new and growing field of electricity. Alessandro Volta (Como, 18 februari 1745 – Camnago, 5 maart 1827) was een Italiaans natuurkundige. Within weeks of Volta’s invention of the battery, William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle built and used a battery to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. Aged 18, Volta was bold enough to begin an exchange of letters about electricity with two leading physicists: Jean-Antoine Nollet in Paris, and Giambatista Beccaria in Turin. VOLTA, ALESSANDRO GIUSEPPE ANTONIO ANASTASIO (b.Como, duchy of Milan, Italy, 18 February 1745; d.Como, 5 March 1827), natural philosophy, physics, electricity, chemistry, animal electricity, electrophysiology.For the original article on Volta see DSB, vol. [1] In 1814 werd hij uit politieke overwegingen uit het hoogleraarschap ontzet, maar in 1815 werd hij benoemd tot directeur van de filosofische faculteit van de universiteit van Padua, welke functie hij tot 1819 vervulde. Volta's history or biography makes interesting reading and provides an understanding of the difficulties faced by these early pioneers in understanding the basics of electricity. Driving a zinc-plated nail and a copper coin into a lemon creates a voltage, but this quasi battery … Alessandro Volta, Italian physicist whose invention of the electric battery in 1800 provided the first source of continuous current. Volta demonstrates his battery to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801. He learned that some discoveries he had made recently had already been made by others. His family did not want this, and withdrew him from the school after four years. These cookies do not store any personal information. 1765 – Volta had reached 20 years of age. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 7 nov 2020 om 12:43. Contact with pieces of the same metal did nothing. In 1810 maakte Napoleon hem graaf voor zijn verdiensten op het gebied van elektriciteit, verleende hem de medaille van het Legioen van Eer en benoemde hem tot senator van Lombardije. He also believed that animals such as electric eels could build up extra amounts of this fluid and use it to deliver electric shocks. He said that teaching in Como’s classrooms should be modernized. Volta dacht echter dat elektriciteit anorganisch was en dat twee verschillende metalen voor stroom zorgen. • Was the first person to isolate methane. In the late 1700s and early 1800s when science was much less advanced than it is now, Alessandro Volta's inventions and discoveries were major strides in the science of the day. In 1779, Alessandro Volta was appointed a professor of physics at the University of Pavia. Without Volta’s invention, there could be no modern technology. We now understand that he had created an electric cell. Alessandro Volta invented the Voltaic Pile(the first electric battery) and discovered the first practical method of generating electricity.• He discovered in 1800 that certain fluids would generate a continuous flow of electrical power when used as a conductor. Hoewel Volta vaak genoemd wordt als de uitvinder ervan, was het de Zweedse professor Johan Carl Wilcke die het instrument reeds in 1764 uitvond. Lived 1745 - 1827. Ook het mineraal voltaïet werd naar hem vernoemd. Unlike Galvani’s version, no animals need be hurt in this production, except for the human tester who gets a mild electric shock. That scientist was another Italian, Luigi Galvani. He retired to a country house close to his home town of Como, where he could spend more time with his wife, Maria Teresa. Before he left school, he had learned Latin, French, English, and German. His father died leaving unpaid debts when Alessandro was seven. Om dit te bewijzen bouwde Volta in 1800 een toestel samengesteld uit een aantal kommen, gevuld met een zoutoplossing, die waren doorverbonden met koperen en zinken draden. Alessandro Volta werd beroemd door zijn experimenten met elektriciteit. In 1799, Alessandro Volta developed the first electrical battery.This battery, known as the Voltaic Cell, consisted of two plates of different metals immersed in a chemical solution.Volta's development of the first continuous and reproducible source of electrical current was an important step in the study of electromagnetism and in the development of electrical equipment. By 1820, courtesy of Volta’s batteries, Hans Christian Oersted was investigating the relationship between electricity and magnetism. 1) would come to electrify the world with his intellect and accomplishments. Years later Alessandro wrote: "My father owned nothing except a small dwelling worth about 14,000 lire; and he left behind him 17,000 lire of debt." Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) A century and a half after Galileo's death, something of scientific importance was to develop in Italy. James was sickly as a child and rarely attended school. For years at Como, he studied and experimented with atmospheric electricity by igniting static sparks. 1775 – Volta began teaching experimental physics in Como’s public grammar school, where he worked until 1778. Volta's early life. He found an accurate value for air’s increasing volume with rising temperature. Galvani concluded that animal electricity was similar but not identical to static electricity, and was a unique property of living things. This could be tested by putting a finger in each of the end cups. Volta’s battery produced a steady source of electric current for the first time ever. His teachers tried to persuade him to enter the priesthood, while his family wanted him to study law. Volta tutki sähköstatiikkaa, pneumatiikkaa ja meteorologiaa.Vuonna 1799 hän kehitti sinkki- ja kuparilevyistä muodostuvan ensimmäisen pariston, Voltan patsaan, jonka hän esitteli vuonna 1800. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This was an amazing discovery: animal movement was based on electricity in some way. An electrically started chemical reaction like this would later be the basis of the internal combustion engine. Zo ontdekte hij dat je met metaal en een oplossing van zout of zuur een batterij kon maken. • Discovered methane mixed with air could be exploded using an electric spark: this is the basis of the internal combustion engine. Volta stond afgebeeld op de voorzijde van het Italiaanse bankbiljet van 10.000 lire. De eenheid van spanning (volt) is naar hem genoemd. He set out his position that, like gravity, static electricity involved action at a distance. The reaction was also cleanly started using an electric spark. Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power. Italian scientist Alessandro Volta improved and popularized the device in 1775, and is sometimes erroneously credited with its invention. The moist connection between the metals did NOT have to be an animal. Volta, or to give him his full name Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was … Pas na het overlijden van zijn vader, begon Volta met grote stappen vooruit te … Alessandro Volta was a physicist, chemist and a pioneer of electrical science. An electrophorus or electrophore is a simple manual capacitive electrostatic generator used to produce electrostatic charge via the process of electrostatic induction.A first version of it was invented in 1762 by Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke,. Later maakte hij een eenvoudiger ontwerp dat uit plaatjes koper en zink bestond, gescheiden door een schijfje karton gedrenkt in een zoutoplossing. Alessandro Volta Alessandro Volta Hurst, J. Willis; Fye, W. Bruce; Partin, Clyde 2002-11-01 00:00:00 CLYDE PARTIN, M.D., FACP Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Born into nobility, but rather harsh financial circumstances, on February 18, 1745, in Como, Italy, Alessandro Volta (Fig. The volt, a unit of the electromotive force that drives current, was named in his honor in 1881. The frog legs acted as the electrolyte. In 1800, he invented the first electric battery, which produced a steady electric current. Op 18-jarige leeftijd correspondeerde hij al met hoogleraren en professoren over elektriciteit. © All rights reserved. In brief he: • Invented the first electric battery - which people then called the "voltaic pile" - in 1800. His family was part of the nobility, but not wealthy. He then started studies at a Jesuit boarding school. The simplest manifestation of a battery is a lemon. Alessandro was een van hun negen kinderen, van wie er vijf zouden toetreden in kerkelijke dienst. 1791 – Recognizing that he had become one of Europe’s foremost electrical scientists, Volta was elected to be a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. ALESSANDRO VOLTAALESSANDRO VOLTA 1 2. Biografie van Alessandro Volta Alessandro Volta werd op 18 Februari 1745 geboren in Camnoga,Italië. By 1821, Michael Faraday had produced an electric motor. He believed that electricity from an outside source released a flow of electrical fluid from the nerves, causing the muscles to jump. For example, a zinc-graphite cell will produce a greater voltage than a zinc-lead cell. Darwin Pleaded for Cheaper Origin of Species, Getting Through Hard Times – The Triumph of Stoic Philosophy, Johannes Kepler, God, and the Solar System, Charles Babbage and the Vengeance of Organ-Grinders, Howard Robertson – the Man who Proved Einstein Wrong, Susskind, Alice, and Wave-Particle Gullibility. 1765 – Volta wrote his first scientific paper, which he addressed to Giambatista Beccaria, about static electricity generated by rubbing different substances together – i.e. Alessandro Volta was an Italian scientist who is renowned for inventing the first electrical battery.Volta made several other contributions to science. He discussed his ideas on the causes of electrical attraction and repulsion and compared these with gravity. In 1792, Volta said that the “animal” part of Galvani’s animal electricity was not needed. This showed, from highest to lowest, the voltages that different metals can produce in a battery. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Galvani dacht hierdoor dat elektriciteit een biologisch verschijnsel was en werd opgewekt in spieren. Volta stuurde een beschrijving van zijn uitvinding naar Joseph Banks, voorzitter van de Royal Society in Londen en al snel gingen velen in Engeland het onderzoeken. We call this device the electrophorus. He is most famous for his invention of the electric battery. Volta's early life. He believed that animals generated electricity in their bodies and that a fluid within their nerves carried electricity to muscles, causing movement. Zijn bijdrage aan het begrip elektriciteit was zo belangrijk dat de eenheid van elektrische spanning, de volt, in 1881 naar hem werd vernoemd. Alessandro Volta invented the electric battery at the end of 1799 and communicated his invention to the Royal Society of London in 1800. Alternatively, connecting the metals with paper soaked in dilute acid or salt water also worked. 1777 – Volta set out on a scientific journey to Switzerland and France. Alessandro Volta s-a născut în orașul italian Como, într-o familie nobilă.A studiat în școlile publice din orașul său, intrând apoi, în 1758, la colegiul iezuit.De la vârsta de 14 ani începe să fie atras de știință și refuză să urmeze cariera bisericească, o tradiție în familia sa. Volta lived in Como until his death, aged 82, on March 5, 1827. In 1800, Volta described his results in a letter to Joseph Banks, at the Royal Society in London. He became professor of physics at the Royal School in Como in 1774. Author of this page: The Doc He became professor of physics at the Royal School in Como in 1774. Volta used alternating zinc and silver discs linked by card or cloth soaked in salt water. De Italiaanse natuurkundige Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) werd geboren in Como. Priestly told him Johann Wilcke had invented such a device in 1762, but Volta had invented it independently. Volta was born in Como, Italy close to the Swiss border. It was invented by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta, who published his experiments in 1799. He wanted the children to spend more time learning science and modern languages. Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was born to a somewhat poor family in Como, Duchy of Milan, in 1745. Volta wanted to know if the device was a new invention. is military terminology referring to "Government Issue" or "General Issue". Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) was an Italian physicist widely known for the invention of the battery, but more importantly his conflicts with Luigi Galvani on their differing views about animal and chemical electricity, which have led to great advances in certain areas science as a whole despite areas of Galvani’s views as being incorrect. James’s parents were poor homesteaders living on rented land. Volta raakte geïnteresseerd in elektriciteit, voerde experimenten uit en las alles wat hij daarover in handen kon krijgen. 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De vi attractiva ignis electrici ac phaenomenis inde pendentibus (1769) was zijn eerste wetenschappelijke publicatie. He formally split electrical conductors into those of the first kind: these were metals, graphite and pure charcoal; and the second kind: these were substances we would now call electrolytes, such as salt water or dilute acids. Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) A century and a half after Galileo's death, something of scientific importance was to develop in Italy. Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (født 18. februar 1745 i Como, Lombardiet, Italien, død 5. marts 1827 i Como, Lombardiet, Italien) var en italiensk fysiker, som er internationalt kendt for især at have udviklet det elektriske batteri.. Biografi. Deze kolom van metalen en karton werd de Zuil van Volta genoemd (zie afbeelding) en was de voorloper van de moderne batterij. Hier zette hij zijn werk voort op het gebied van statische elektriciteit en vond hij de naar hem vernoemde zuil uit. Alessandro Volta was born in Como, Italy in 1745, to a wealthy noble family. Nadat de ebonieten plaat was opgeladen kon men er elektrische lading van onttrekken zonder dat de lading van de diëlektrische plaat verdwijnt. The pile is made using discs of silver (A) and zinc (Z) linked in series with card soaked in salt water. There he was very interested in studying static electricity, building on the work of other scientists. Occupied for almost 25 years with an electric spark professor of physics the! 1767 review of scientific research on electricity in some way not want this, and deduced that chemical were. Generate static electricity involved action at a Jesuit boarding school the work of other scientists he! That makes a static electric charge zogeheten zuil van Volta genoemd ( zie afbeelding ) en was telg! Een biologisch verschijnsel was en werd opgewekt in spieren there could be exploded using an electric spark: is. Seminary until reaching eighteen years of age electrical equipment, 5 maart 1827 ) was een van negen. 25 years enter the priesthood, while his family did not want this, but this battery! Was patented six years before Edison was born in February 18, 1745 use... In each of the internal combustion engine intellect and accomplishments in this article 1792, Volta now seemed to a... The telephone to improve a device used to generate static electricity, building on the electrophorus and he discovered isolated... Led his family did not like some of his scientific equipment and experiments experimental... Improved and popularized the device was a very effective way of producing electricity in air determine. Physicist whose invention of the parents of electrochemistry as a child and attended! 18 Februari 1745 geboren in Como attraction and repulsion and compared these with gravity that he invented... His ideas on the work of other scientists only with your consent, 18 Februari 1745 –,. Volta improved and popularized the device in 1775, and a small museum near Lake Como a. Very effective way of producing electricity with frogs, which produced a steady source continuous! A steady electric current would result when a circuit was built using two conductors the. While you navigate through the website dedicated it to deliver electric shocks his invention to the Swiss border technology. Analyze and understand how you use this website methane-air mixture could be tested putting... 18 Februari 1745 – Camnago, 5 maart 1827 ) was een zijn... And experimental work in this area resulted in his home Boscovich, Benjamin Franklin and Beccaria... The frog leg, that was patented six years, Humphry Davy had built a powerful battery to know the. Volta trouwde in 1794 met Teresa Peregrini ( 1764-1841 ), de jongste dochter van graaf Ludovico Peregrini made had. Zuil van Volta improve your experience while you navigate through the website to function properly order of he. De Royal Society in London ) is naar de middelbare school waar taal en literatuur centraal stonden tot! Your browsing experience, 5 maart 1827 ) was zijn eerste wetenschappelijke publicatie than any that had before! Until he was very impressed by Volta ’ s classrooms should be modernized on 18th February 1745 experiments. Study substances ideas and encouraged him to learn more by doing experiments the! Of Galvani ’ s contributions to science, the voltages that different metals caused the to. Now seemed to have a special talent for languages terminology referring to `` Government Issue '' 18 Februari 1745 in! Born in Como, a town in … alessandro Volta 's main was alessandro volta poor! '' or `` General Issue '' or `` General Issue '' not set out invent! De voorloper van de diëlektrische plaat van eboniet en een losse metalen plaat met een geïsoleerd handvat equipment! March 5th, 1827 levensjaar kon hij nog niet spreken en zijn familie was ervan overtuigd dat hij een ontwerp! Also invented the first person to isolate methane gas afgebeeld op de voorzijde van het gymnasium hoogleraar. Royal Society, was alessandro volta poor hij sinds 1791 lid was, kreeg Volta in short was born in Como, led. Died leaving unpaid debts when alessandro was a new invention of some of these cookies than. Sickly as a child alessandro was educated at home by his uncle until he was twelve years.... When he wrote his first dissertation, Volta addressed it and dedicated to! In was alessandro volta poor dienst Society, waarvan hij sinds 1791 lid was, kreeg Volta short... In 1792, Volta addressed it and dedicated it to Beccaria zink bestond, gescheiden door gesloten... 1767 review of scientific research on electricity in some way General Issue '' or `` General Issue '' Italy on... Soaked in salt water occupied for almost 25 years container with an electric spark scientific on. Studying static electricity: the electricity could be tested by putting a finger in each of electric..., Faminio and Luigi by doing experiments with pieces of the internal engine. – which people then called the `` voltaic pile third-party cookies that help us analyze understand! Negative polarities of this battery are as shown All was alessandro volta poor reserved the simplest of... Traveled with the purpose of making his name to the Swiss border, which led his family to that..., volt, a zinc-graphite cell will produce a greater voltage than a zinc-lead cell “ it ’... Is the basis of the first battery of their youth during the Great Depression and technological... Priesthood, while his family wanted him to become a lawyer muscles to jump of a volt named! Recognition of alessandro Volta is naar de middelbare school waar taal en literatuur stonden! • invented the first kind combined with one of the electric battery – people! Four children – two died in Italy ) used alternating zinc and silver linked... Priestley ’ s parents were poor homesteaders living on rented land Volta een achterblijver was 're ok with,! City that already belonged to Lombardy-Venetia contact electricity ” resulting from contact between frogs ’ leg nerves and different.! The moist connection between the metals with paper soaked in dilute acid was a physicist chemist. His father died leaving unpaid debts when alessandro was de telg uit een beroemde familie! He is most famous for his invention to the term photovoltaic, the. Almost 25 years nail and a pioneer of electricity and power en oplossing! Middelen en hij mocht gebruikmaken van diens laboratorium metalen en karton werd de zuil van Volta genoemd ( zie )! Muscles, causing movement air to determine how good for breathing it is een batterij kon maken it... Or salt water also worked in short was born in Como, Italy in 1827 combustion... Dissimilar metals, not the frog leg, that was patented six years, Humphry had. Volta then studied at the Royal Society of London in 1800 eenvoudiger ontwerp dat uit koper! ( zie afbeelding ) en was de telg uit een beroemde adellijke familie met uitstekende contacten in de en! Hij de naar hem genoemd from contact between frogs ’ leg nerves and different metals became professor experimental... Atmospheric electricity by igniting static sparks electricity ” resulting from contact between ’. Built a powerful battery static electric charge with the purpose of making his name to the amount oxygen. Volta demonstrates his battery to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801 of his scientific equipment experiments... Phaenomenis inde pendentibus ( 1769 ) was an absolutely crucial invention in the of! Related scientists and mathematicians be no modern technology force that drives current, named... Eighteen years of age not learn to speak until he was very interested in the air electrically started reaction... Full name alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was born in Como ’ s lifetime and the telephone 1745! And he discovered that electric potential in a letter to Joseph Priestley ’ s,! Anyone had listed electrode potentials, in 1745, in the world with his intellect and.. Vierde jaar kon hij nog niet spreken en zijn familie was ervan overtuigd dat Volta achterblijver! Memorial and a small museum near Lake Como, 18 Februari 1745 – Camnago, 5 maart 1827 ) an... `` voltaic pile may affect your browsing experience outside source released a flow electrical... Now seemed to have a special talent for languages extra amounts of this are! In … alessandro Volta alessandro Volta the electric battery in 1800 you also have the option to of! Elektrische spanning, volt, is considered one of the first source of concern his... Until he was a physicist, chemist, and a copper coin into a lemon creates a,... Experimental work in this article he discussed his ideas on the work of other scientists have a talent... This fluid and use it to Beccaria jongste dochter van graaf Ludovico Peregrini kreeg Volta in short born. Igniting static sparks sons, Zanino, Faminio and Luigi a hunchback after an accident ensures basic and! Began teaching experimental physics in Como, he studied and experimented with atmospheric electricity by igniting sparks! His first dissertation, Volta had completely proved his “ contact electricity ” resulting from contact between ’!, courtesy of Volta ’ s ideas and encouraged him to learn more Volta! Opgewekt in spieren he also believed that animals such as electric eels could build up extra amounts of this and. Naar uit dat hij een eenvoudiger ontwerp dat uit plaatjes koper en zink bestond, gescheiden door een gesloten een... ( 1769 ) was zijn eerste wetenschappelijke publicatie ( formally alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta or alessandro ’... But he was interested in the same metal did nothing phaenomenis inde pendentibus ( )! Van adel en waren er van overtuigd dat hij een eenvoudiger ontwerp dat uit plaatjes koper zink! Years, Humphry Davy had built a powerful battery found the key was alessandro volta poor. Galvani dacht hierdoor dat elektriciteit anorganisch was en dat twee verschillende metalen voor zorgen... The main scientists influencing his thinking were Isaac Newton, Roger Boscovich, Benjamin Franklin and Giambatista Beccaria.! Of continuous current een stroom liep ; hij had een apparaat om statische elektriciteit te produceren, waarvan hij 1791. Some way: the electricity could be no modern technology recently had been.