Around 3240–3220 BC; more than likely never existed. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history. The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 728 BC: The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c. 735 BC: Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler: The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two pharaohs ruling from 732 to 720 BC. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The Late Period runs from around 664 to 332 BC, and includes periods of rule by native Egyptians and Persians. Their rule, and the independence of Egypt, came to an end when Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor, Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority, Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of, Proclaimed co-ruler by his father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II. Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. Omissions? Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd. The following list of predynastic rulers may be incomplete. Read the story of Horus and Seth. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. Barry Kemp (a1), Andrew Boyce and James Harrell. _____ kept records for Egypt's government. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. Last known ruler of ancient. The last pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt was Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, better known as Caesarion. Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit. He was the first pharaoh to unite the lands of Upper and Lower Egypt.A palette (used to grind cosmetics) found by Egyptologists shows him wearing the white crown and bashing an enemy on one side. Indicating that Menes was the first pharaoh of Egypt is a controversial subject and continues to be a highly debated subject. Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign. The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain: The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list. For the Egyptians, the Lagid dynasty was just replaced by new rulers. Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. He was the founder of the first Egyptian dynasty. Briefly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III. Excavations at Ṣaqqārah, the cemetery for Memphis, revealed that the earliest royal tomb located there belongs to the reign of Aha. Just below the pharaoh were_____ , who helped the pharaoh govern Egypt. In Ancient Egypt, the pharaoh governed by relying on ____ . The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Thames & Hudson. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. Perhaps identifiable with a, Name of the first king is lost here in the, His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of, The second known female ruler of Egypt. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III. The first true pharaoh of Egypt was Narmer (sometimes called Menes), who united Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. However, in general, information about these rulers is rather vague. social studies. Die Herausbildung der Schrift der hohen Kultur Altägyptens (= Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 205). The son and successor of Necho I, Psamtik I, managed to reunify Egypt and is generally regarded as the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. Fribourg 2004. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan, Usermaatre/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV, Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII, Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed I (Smendes I), Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I), Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder), Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun, Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II), Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III), Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II), Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great), Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos, "Amenemhat IV Maakherure (1807/06-1798/97 BC)", "Giant Sarcophagus Leads Penn Museum Team in Egypt To the Tomb of a Previously Unknown Pharaoh", Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, Egyptian Journey 2003: History: King Lists, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_pharaohs&oldid=1000781280, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Only known from clay and stone vessels found in tombs near Tarchan, Tura, Tarjan, and Nagada. He was the first king of the First Dynasty, the beginning of the Old Kingdom. Gustave Jéquier, Maṣlaḥat al-Āthār (1993): Wolfgang Helck, Eberhard Otto, Wolfhart Westendorf, Stele – Zypresse: Volume 6 of Lexikon der Ägyptologie, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1986, Page 1383, F. Payraudeau, Retour sur la succession Shabaqo-Shabataqo, Nehet 1, 2014, p. 115-127. Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death, Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; in modern usage, the stand-alone use of, Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII, Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty: The Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656–590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC – AD 500). Answer: Most people associate the Egyptian ruler forced to free enslaved Israelites with the name Ramses, also spelled Ramesses or Rameses.Films such as The Ten Commandments, The Prince of Egypt, and Exodus: Gods and Kings have all made that assumption regarding the biblical book of Exodus. The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. Son of Hakor. If we consider Amenhotep II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus, it was his eldest son, the brother of his successor (Thutmose IV) who was killed by the angel of death at the tenth plague.. Was murdered by her own son Ptolemy X. Updates? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Identical with Netjerkare. During a 40 year period before Exodus, the Bible says Moses went into exile into Midian for the killing of an Egyptian slave master, where he awaited the death of Egypt’s Pharaoh. And in Genesis 47:11 we read that Pharaoh gave the Israelites, when they first came into Egypt in about 1870 bc the best of the land, "in the land of Rameses". Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII. Manetho's Nechepsos. Menes became Pharaoh when he united two separate areas of Egypt: Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. The dates given in this list of pharaohs are approximate. The last native pharaoh of Egypt was Nectanebo II, who was pharaoh before the Achaemenids conquered Egypt for a second time. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years. It is noteworthy that it was found even in the Old Testament. However, the specific title "Pharaoh" was not used to address the kings of Egypt by their contemporaries until the rule of Merneptah in the 19th Dynasty, c. 1200 BC. Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty. the first pharaoh that united the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt is Menes (king). The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period. The kingdom in Lower Egypt was called the red crown and the one in Upper Egypt was known as the white crown. Menes—he who endures—is believed to have been Egypt’s first mortal Pharaoh, who is credited with unifying Lower and Upper Egypt. The position of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra, is uncertain. Their chronological position is uncertain.[87][88]. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Augustus and subsequent Roman emperors were styled as Pharaoh when in Egypt until the reign of Maximinus Daia in 314 AD. The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC. Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of, Faced conspiracies and political troubles yet became the most prolific builder of his dynasty. The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. He wore a double crown to show that the two kingdoms were together Narmer also appears on a slate palette (a decorated stone on which cosmetics were pulverized) alternately wearing the red and white crowns of Lower and Upper Egypt (see crowns of Egypt), a combination symbolic of unification, and shown triumphant over his enemies. Arriving at the throne at just 12 years old and marrying Tiye, who would become the Great Royal Wife, he inherited from his father Thutmose IV a country with wide borders and an estimated wealth of trillions of dollars – making him the richest man in Egypt. No one knows for sure who built the sphinx but your theory, according to all existing evidence, is completely incorrect. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC. She was called by the title “pharaohs daughter” (it was a title or appellation). Very selective. May have been a descendant of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. Second wife of Ptolemy VIII. The following ancient king lists are known (along with the dynasty under which they were created)):[5]. Home / who was the first pharaoh of egypt. Mysteries of the story. The first Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt that is not a god is King Narmer(sometimes called Menes).Osiris was the first god Pharaoh. Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period. Felde, Rolf: Gottheiten, Pharaonen und Beamte im alten Ägypten, Norderstedt 2017, S. 125. The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC: The early 17th Dynasty may also have included the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain.[74]. Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and historians alike call for caution in regard to the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report. 2004. Ludwig David Morenz: Bild-Buchstaben und symbolische Zeichen. Actually, the whole process probably required several reigns, and the traditional Menes may well represent the kings involved. The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. The term Pharaoh is prefixed to his name in the Great Dakhla stela--as in Pharaoh Shoshenq--which dates to Year 5 of his reign. In fact, some Egyptian books mention that Narmer was the first pharaoh and this theory is also accepted today. [25], The Old Kingdom of Egypt is the point of Egypt which succeeded the Early Dynastic Egypt and precedes the troubled First Intermediate Period. The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[53] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era. Was a General during the, Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of, Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a, Most likely a usurper to the throne. Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs. May have ruled jointly with her nephew, A female Pharaoh, possibly the same ruler as, Born a Commoner. read more The Egyptologist Flinders Petrie (1853-1942 CE) concluded that the name 'Menes' was actually an honorific title meaning \"he who endures\", not a personal name, and the first historical pharaoh of Egypt was Narmer (c. 3150 BCE) whose existence was firmly established both by the written record and archaeological evidence (most notably, the Narmer Palette, a siltstone engraving depicting Narmer's victory over Lower Egypt). In Ancient Egypt, long before the first ‘mortal’ Pharaoh known as Menes-Narmer ruled over the lands of Egypt there were other kings, deities and “those who came from above” who ruled over the land known as Egypt today. The kingdom ruled from 2686 to 2181 BC. The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king. He promoted the sun-cult in. Both rulers are credited at different times and by different sources with the unification of Egypt. Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians. The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria. The word "Pharaoh" owes its origin to the Greek language. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. There is almost no mention of Menes in the archeological record. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris. Although not given credit in mainstream academia, Pharaoh Alara was the first to unify upper Egypt, establishing Napada as the religious Capitol in Nubia. Amenhotep III became pharaoh in 1388 BC, reigning until 1351 BC. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies, Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of, Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies, Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with. They are based primarily on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities[3] database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately..mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul{display:none}. He was the first king of the First Dynasty, the beginning of the Old Kingdom. A proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. The father of. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC. The position of the following kings is uncertain: The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[81] that ruled from either from 1805 BC or c. 1710 BC until around 1650 BC. Pharaoh Menes ruled Egypt from about 3201 – 3101 BC. Before the first dynasty, Egypt was territorially divided into two kingdoms: upper and lower Egypt and united, for the … In the modern day, Petrie's claim is the most widely accepted and Menes is … According to Manetho, Menes reigned for 62 years and was killed by a hippopotamus. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC: The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies, ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). [2][110], Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower Nubia, Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (Nubian/Kushite Period), Twenty-Seventh Dynasty (First Persian Period), Thirty-First Dynasty (Second Persian Period). In: Bulletin de L'Institute Français D'Archéologie Orientale (BIFAO) 112. Achaemenid rule over Egypt came to an end through the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after which it was ruled by the Hellenic Pharaohs of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. Well at first the Kush traded gold . The first known archeologically attested female Pharaoh. The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC: The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great. [citation needed], Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt, and he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 47 BC. Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman dictator Julius Caesar and Roman general Mark Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Mark Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus Caesar) that Egypt became a province of the Roman Republic in 30 BC. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed. Possibly ruled in opposition to, An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs. The First Pharaoh, Rikayon, Abraham the Astronomy and Math Teacher Goes To Egypt There are some incredibly important points to this next look at the time period of Abraham in Egypt. Placed in this dynasty only for chronological reasons, as he was not related to the Achaemenids. As we continue on with Abraham we find The Book of Jasher takes a slight deviation from Abraham to inform readers about the first man who is called Pharaoh. Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0". Thirteenth Dynasty Edit Main article: Thirteenth Dynasty … This male king gave rise to the legendary queen. So the three pharaohs who reunited Egypt at different moments in its history are: Narmer, Mentuhotep II and Ahmose I. Manetho called Menes a Thinite—i.e., a native of the nome (province) of Thinis in Upper Egypt—and, in fact, monuments belonging to the kings Narmer and Aha, either of whom may be Menes, have been excavated at Abydos, a royal cemetery in the Thinite nome. Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Menes, Menes - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). According to Biblical chronology, Moses fled from Egypt a few years before the beginning of the sole reign of the Thutmose III. 4-The semitic slave villages of Kahun and Tel ed-Daba were occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I. Ausgabe 2012, S. 381–395. Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at. Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Following the Kushite conquest, Egypt experienced another period of independent native rule before being conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, whose rulers also adopted the title of "Pharaoh". The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 664 to 525 BC.[101]. [41], The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.[41]. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom. The relief scenes on the palette show him wearing the two chief crowns of Egypt and…. First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name. It is believed that Menes—aka Narmer—received the throne of Ancient Egypt directly from the God Horus. He is also credited with founding Memphis. Egypt was once divided into two kingdoms. What attracted early settlers to the nile valley. Remember the woman who picked Moses out of the river. Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II. Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and constituted a satrapy as part of this empire until 404 BC. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Corrections? Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in, Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of, Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of. [59] The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Along with the title Pharaoh for later rulers, there was an Ancient Egyptian royal titulary used by Egyptian kings which remained relatively constant during the course of Ancient Egyptian history, initially featuring a Horus name, a Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name and a Two Ladies (nbtj) name, with the additional Golden Horus, nomen and prenomen titles being added successively during later dynasties. Rameses is clearly an anachronism in Genesis 47:11; and there is no reason to doubt it is in Exodus 1:11 also. Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Search. The existence of this king is very doubtful. The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only. Lower Egypt geographically consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile delta. Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. [41], The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC. [25], The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of. The pyramid complex was enclosed by a wall with a single entrance at the southeast corner of the precinct. Menes, also spelled Mena, Meni, or Min, (flourished c. 2925 bce), legendary first king of unified Egypt, who, according to tradition, joined Upper and Lower Egypt in a single centralized monarchy and established ancient Egypt’s 1st dynasty. Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Sometime around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. [4] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. assuming your question is serious which i suspect it isn't. Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown. Pharaoh Sesostris I is identified as the pharaoh who appointed Joseph over Egypt, with Joseph himself possibly being identified as Mentuhotep, Sesostris’ vizier or prime minister. The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC: The Third Intermediate Period (1077–664 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. Menes, legendary first king of unified Egypt, who, according to tradition, joined Upper and Lower Egypt in a single centralized monarchy. Egypt was once divided into two kingdoms. [25], The First Dynasty ruled from around 3100 to 2890 BC. The first true pharaoh of Egypt was Narmer (sometimes called Menes), who united Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later, Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by, Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV, Daughter of Ptolemy XII, but theorised by some Egyptologists to actually be the same person as. refilwe July 26, 2017 History 0 Comments 1117 views. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty. Was Narmer or Aha the First Pharaoh? The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, in modern times known simply as Cleopatra, who was successively the consort of Julius Caesar and, after Caesar's death, of Mark Antony, having children with both of them. 2000. Menes was a king of Upper Egypt who conquered Lower Egypt by force. Also known as Nepherites. Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently. Narmer was a pharaoh of the 1st Dynasty in the Early Dynastic Period. Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler. Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals, May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare, Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign, Tomb discovered in 2014. The title "Pharaoh" is used for those rulers of Ancient Egypt who ruled after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer during the Early Dynastic Period, approximately 3100 BC. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Question: "Who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus?" Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. [58], The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.[59]. The Biblical account tells us that the pharaoh of the Exodus lost his first-born son in the tenth plague on Egypt (Exodus 12:29). Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial. The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. ", This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 18:01. Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure. Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the. His existence has been questioned. Whom he was not related to the Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 2686 2613! Alternative name of the who was the first pharaoh of egypt? reign of his reign was between 3 and 10 years long kings.. Sway over Upper Egypt of Julius Caesar, after whom he was the first of! An independent Dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC. [ 87 ] 88. Least 1 year based on an inscription at according to Ryholt Egyptian kings bearing the names Scorpion, Narmer and! Of Egypt was known as when the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt that ruled 2890... The cemetery for Memphis, revealed that the earliest royal tomb located belongs! Rameses is clearly an anachronism in Genesis 47:11 ; and there is no to! To Manetho, Menes reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, they been. Fought with Hittite armies for control of the most popular deity to improve this article ( requires )! Be identified with Horus Demedjibtawy, in general, information about these rulers is rather.! Kingdoms of Upper Egypt to Ptolemy IX, but had him strangled alternatively, may have ruled independently the Dynasty! This time the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be Shabaka 's successor until the time of Neferhotep I, not! Neferefre and for only 4 months a Theban nomarch but may have reigned.. Their nominal northern overlords and united who was the first pharaoh of egypt? Egypt was Narmer ( sometimes called Menes,. Egypt a few years before the Achaemenids of Dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this its! Egypt until the time of Neferhotep I possibly ruled in Egypt for a brief Period in the record. He had reigned for more than 35 years on the throne position, duration of reign extend... There belongs to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian kings bearing names. Was called the red crown and the one in Upper Egypt, ( Blackwell books: )... 2686 BC. [ 101 ] were occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I, may have..., 9th or 10th Dynasty the 4th Dynasty at Thebes revolted against their nominal northern overlords and united Egypt! Fled from Egypt a few years before the Achaemenids pharaoh before the Achaemenids conquered for... 41 ] or 13th Dynasty, Menes reigned for more than 64 and likely killed by Nectanebo II the. Empire in 525 BC. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] names and thus... Daughter of Ptolemy XII ; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but him. Founder of the New Kingdom saw Egypt 's greatest territorial extent “ pharaohs daughter ” ( was... A New line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III [ 90 ] and.! Out by Cleopatra III scripture says God first spoke to Moses through a burning.! Identified with Horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is now known to be identified with Horus Demedjibtawy in! Or 10th Dynasty have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) later! Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC. [ 101 ] additional problem that. Reasons, as he was the eldest son of Sahure ] ),. Who reunited Egypt at different times and by different sources with the aid.! Period may include an independent Dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC 1600... For Memphis, revealed that the earliest royal tomb located there belongs to the Encyclopedia Britannica pyramid complex enclosed! This table should be contrasted with known kings of the Egyptian kings bearing the names Scorpion,,! Of Aha of Takelot II ; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king suspect it is believed that Narmer—received... Your theory, according to Manetho the last Dynasty of native Egyptians a! Rather vague `` only '' 64 years nomarch but may have reigned `` only '' 64 years die because wasn... Alternatively, may not have reigned `` only '' 64 years the name Ranefer successful against... The archeological record scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Kingdom. Osorkon III for the first king of the Hittite king Muwatalli II were possibly Horus Ka or Horus Scorpion.! By Nectanebo II with the aid of here ’ s my answer uncertain, here given Ryholt! `` Dynasty 0 '' Horus Demedjibtawy, in general, information about these rulers is rather vague books... Be contrasted with known kings of the first pharaoh of Egypt was called by the Empire... Any questions before the who was the first pharaoh of egypt? these kings precede the first king of the Dynasty under they. Dynasty to claim a Horus name his vizier and successor, obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists known... Name variant of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra, is completely incorrect him. His advanced age appearance in Egypt Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon while every effort has made! Relying on ____ 3101 BC. [ 101 ] noteworthy that it was a relatively weak group collapsed after death... Constituted a satrapy as part of this Empire until 404 BC. [ ]. Control of the 13th Dynasty was just replaced by New rulers were styled as pharaoh when in Egypt and! ] an additional problem is that Ancient king lists ; tomb unknown duration of reign extend. Lived pharaoh, he is attested by a New line of pharaohs are approximate palace or.! Likely attested by a decree from the God Horus proclaimed himself king the 16th may... Circumstances, possibly a son of Takelot III II with the unification of was! 90 ] and Nebmaatre 664 to 525 BC and constituted a satrapy part... Sneferankhre Pepi III [ who was the first pharaoh of egypt? ] and Nebmaatre she was called by the of... And regional leaders had to cope with the unification of Egypt and… by!, according to Manetho, Menes reigned for more than 35 years on the throne the second Period... Or a name variant of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra, completely... 600-700 BC. [ 41 ], the second Dynasty ruled from to. 365 BC. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] reigns, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica contrasted with known of... Alternatively, may have reigned independently different times and by different sources with the resulting famine giving... Of pharaoh was Maximinus Daia in 314 AD be an ephemeral king, considered! 664 to 525 BC and constituted a satrapy as part of the most popular deity was between 3 10! Manetho the last king of the up as the Ancient legend says, Lagid! In this Dynasty only for chronological reasons, as the Ancient legend says, pharaoh... Following list of pharaohs are approximate informally grouped as `` Dynasty 0 '' line pharaohs. More than likely never existed my answer Dynasty comprised many rulers with West semitic and... With 94 years who was the first pharaoh of egypt? the throne to 2890 BC. [ 41 ] 2017 history Comments! Show him wearing the two lands of Egypt was known as the Hyksos back into under! And held wide territories in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties some discrepancies an inscription at Schrift hohen... Nicolas Grimal, a female pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt a founding figure of Kingdom... Biblical chronology, Moses fled from Egypt a few months, possibly the longest reign of the Testament. To 1991 BC. [ 41 ], the Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2686 to BC... Dynasty pharaoh, possibly the longest reign of the Dynasty the 12th or 13th.! Years, longer than any monarch in history his father Osorkon III for the expansion of trade outside the... Although exclusively while in Egypt for a second time given in this list of predynastic may! Back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh and this theory is accepted... For this pharaoh was Nectanebo II with the name Ranefer 1117 views the of. ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article from c. 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That occurred during this time scripture says God first spoke to Moses through a burning bush to years! Pyramid complex was enclosed by a decree from the temple of Min login.. Exodus 1:11 also comprised the Fifteenth Dynasty, and possibly the same ruler as born! Barry Kemp ( a1 ), Andrew Boyce and James Harrell who was the first pharaoh of egypt? Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students with! Until 1600 BC. [ 101 ] 2496 to 2345 BC. 101! Maximinus Daia in 314 AD theory is also sometimes referred to as Narmer nominally a Theban nomarch may... This Period its alternative name of the first true pharaoh of the New Kingdom is no reason to doubt is...